NAME:_________________________________________ PERIOD:________________

 

 

MITOSIS ACTIVITY

 

Purpose:  To build models and label the various stage of the cell cycle: Interphase, Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase/Cytokinesis.

 

Directions for cutting the chromatin/chromatids (DNA): cut nine pieces of each color of yarn to the lengths listed below:

·         Dark blue yarn: 4 cm

·         Light blue yarn: 4 cm

·         Maroon yarn: 3 cm

·         Red yarn: 3 cm

·         Dark green yarn: 2 cm

·         Light green yarn: 2 cm

 

NOTE: The similar colors and same length of the chromatids represent homologous chromosomes that have the same genes but not necessarily the same alleles.

 

Materials:

Organelle

Material

Notes:

Nuclear membrane (envelope)

Draw with colored pencil

The nuclear membrane is present during interphase and should be represented with a solid line. During prophase, the nuclear membrane starts to disappear and should be represented with a dotted line. There is no nuclear membrane during metaphase and anaphase but they reappear (dotted lines) during telophase/cytokinesis.

Chromatin (DNA)

Different colored yarn

Chromatin is uncoiled DNA. You should use one piece of each color of yarn to represent this. This is what the DNA looks like during interphase. And again at the end of telophase/cytokinesis

Nucleolus

 

Construction paper

The nucleolus is present during interphase and should be represented with a solid piece of construction paper. During prophase, the nucleolus starts to disappear and should be represented with a piece of construction paper that is smaller. There is no nucleolus during metaphase and anaphase but they reappear (small) during telophase/cytokinesis.

Centrioles

 

Draw with colored pencil

There are two pairs of centrioles right next to each other present during interphase. At the end of interphase and the beginning of prophase, the centrioles start moving to the top and bottom poles. The centrioles are at the poles during metaphase, anaphase and telophase/cytokinesis.

Sister chromatids (also called a doubled chromosome)

Different colored yarn

The DNA is in the form of sister chromatids during prophase and metaphase. They should look like the letter “X” and you should use two pieces of each color yarn to make that letter ”X”. Remember to make the “X” using the same color to represent the DNA copying itself during interphase.

Centromere

 

Black marker

Once the DNA coils into chromatids, the sister chromatids are held together by a centromere. Centromeres are present during prophase and metaphase. The centromere splits during anaphase.

Spindle

Draw with colored pencil

The spindle starts to form during prophase and is present during metaphase and anaphase.

 

Directions:

1. Obtain the templates of the cell during each of the four phases of mitosis and interphase.

 

2. Using a diagram from your textbook on pp. 285 (or the one given to you in class), make a model of each of the phase of the cell cycle (INTERPHASE, PROPHASE, METAPHASE, ANAPHASE, TELOPHASE) using the materials listed above.

 

3. It is important to remember that interphase flows into prophase and prophase flows into metaphase etc… If you use blue colored pencil to make the spindle fibers in prophase then you must use blue colored pencil to make the spindle fibers in metaphase.

 

4. All of the following structures must be labeled in each of the different phases:

Interphase: chromatin, nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear envelope, centrioles, cell (plasma) membrane and parent cell

 

Prophase: doubled chromosomes, centromeres, disappearing nuclear envelope, disappearing nucleolus, spindle fibers, centrioles, cell (plasma) membrane and parent cell

 

Metaphase: sister chromatids (make sure you point at both of them), centromere, equator, centrioles, spindle fibers, cell (plasma) membrane and parent cell

 

Anaphase: individual chromosomes, poles, centrioles, spindle fibers, cell (plasma) membrane and parent cell

 

Telophase: chromatin, reappearing nuclear envelopes (label both), reappearing nucleolus (label both), furrow, cell (plasma) membrane and daughter cells

 

 

MITOSIS ACTIVITY

 

Questions:

 

1. What is the purpose of mitosis?

 

 

 

2. How many chromosomes does your original parent cell have?

 

 

3. What is the most important thing to happen during interphase?

 

 

 

4. How many sister chromatids (hint: there are two sister chromatids per doubled chromosome) does the parent cell have at the end of interphase/the beginning of prophase?

 

 

5. Why do the chromosomes become visible during prophase but they are not visible during interphase?

 

 

 

6. What happens to the centrioles during prophase?

 

 

 

7. What happens to the doubled chromosomes during metaphase?

 

 

 

8. What is the center of the cell called?

 

 

9. What happens to the doubled chromosomes during anaphase?

 

 

 

10. Telophase is mainly the opposite of what phase?

 

 

 

 

 

11.  What happens to the chromosomes during telophase?

 

 

 

12. What starts to happen to the cell membrane during telophase?

 

 

 

13. How is the cytokinesis of plant cells different from the cytokinesis of animal cells?

 

 

 

 

14. How many chromosomes does each of the daughter cells have at the end of mitosis?

 

 

15. How does this number of chromosomes (in #14) compare to the number of chromosomes in the original parent cell?

 

 

 

16. How many new cells are made during mitosis?

 

 

17. What is the net gain of cells from one division of mitosis?