Name:_________________________________________  Period:______________________

 

ATP

Go to the URL: http://biologyinmotion.com/atp/index.html

ATP and Energy Storage: Page 1 ATP stores energy

Read and answer the following questions:

1. Living things store energy in the form of ____________________________________.

2. Explain how ATP works like a rechargeable battery?

 

3. What biological functions are ATP used for (be specific)?

 

ATP and Energy Storage: Page 2 Energy pathway

4. What are three examples of large food molecules?

 

5. When food molecules are pulled apart, what is released?

 

6. The energy released from food molecules then stored in what molecule?

 

7. The energy stored in ATP is then used to make other large molecules such as (name three):

 

Go to the URL:

http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/etc/movie.htm

NOTE: at the top you can click on a text version of the narrative used in the movie.

8.      What is the electron transport chain?

 

9.      Name the two mobile carriers involved in the electron transport chain.

 

 

10.  How many electrons are moved through the electron transport chain at one time?

 

11.  Why is ubiquinone called a mobile transfer molecule?

 

 

12.  Cytochrome C accepts electrons one at a time. What is pumped through the complex as the electron is transferred?

 

13.  What is made in the cytochrome oxidase complex?

 

 

14.  What happens to the four extra hydrogen ions?

http://vcell.ndsu.nodak.edu/animations/atpgradient/movie.htm

NOTE: at the top you can click on a text version of the narrative used in the movie.

15.  What is often used to perform biological work?

 

16.  Hydrogen ions are also called _________________________________________.

 

 

17.  What is a gradient?

 

18.  The potential energy from the hydrogen ion gradient is used to make what molecule?

 

 

19.  Are there more hydrogen ions above the membrane or below the membrane before ATP synthesis begins?

 

20.  How many protons (hydrogen ions) need to enter the matrix space before one ATP molecule can be made?

 

 

21.  Once ATP synthesis is over, what is true about the number of protons on either side of the membrane?

 

22.  What happens when there is no concentration gradient?

 

Go to the URL: http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/biolink/j_explorations/ch03expl.htm

Active Transport

         Click on Skip Intro

         Note that green spheres represent amino acids, blue spheres represent Na+  ions, and the yellow spheres represent ATP.

Part A: NO ATP expenditure (no ATP is used)

1.      Set ATP expenditure to 0.

2.      Click and drag the sliding indicator in the initial amino acids levels box in the lower left corner to the right to 1000.

3.      Click Start and let run for 60 seconds (use the clock provided).

4.      Repeat with initial amino acids levels set to 0.001.

5.      Look at the results below. Notice that no amino acids (green spheres) enter the cell (move from the bottom of the animation to the top of the animation) in the time interval. This is because no energy in the form of ATP is used.

 

Initial AA levels

Amino acid movement

1000

0

0.001

0

 

Part B: High ATP expenditure (ATP is used)

1.      Set ATP expenditure to high.

2.      Click and drag the sliding indicator in the initial amino acids levels box in the lower left corner to the right to 10.

3.      Click Start and let run for 3 minutes (use the clock provided).

4.      Record your data/observations in the table below:

Initial AA levels

Time (min:sec)

AA concentration

(round to the nearest 1/10)

10

:30

 

10

1:00

 

10

1:30

 

10

2:00

 

10

2:30

 

10

3:00

 

 

 

Questions:

23. Do any amino acids (the green spheres) enter the cell (the inside of the cell is toward the bottom of the animation) in the time interval?

 

 

24. Active transport uses energy. This example of active transport is a sodium/potassium pump. What molecule is needed to run this pump?

 

25. Which ion (Na+ or K+) enters the cell (the inside of the cell is toward the bottom of the animation) through the protein pump?

 

26. Which ion (Na+ or K+) leaves the cell (the inside of the cell is toward the bottom of the animation) through the protein pump?

 

27. Amino acids are represented by the green spheres. What ion crosses the plasma membrane along with the amino acids?

 

28. What would happen to the concentration of amino acids outside the cell relative to inside the cell if the sodium/potassium pump (the example of active transport in this animation) was damaged?

 

 

29. What would happen to the cell if amino acids could not enter the cell? HINT: What organic compound are amino acids used to make and what would happen to the cell if it could not make those organic compounds?