Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Name: _________________________________ Class: ___________ Date:_________

 

Reading Guide

Section 9-1 Chemical Pathways (pp. 250-253)

Chemical Energy and Food

 

 

1.      Organisms get the energy the need from ________________________________.

 

2.      How many calories make up 1 Calorie?

 

 

3.      Which contains more energy per gram, carbohydrates, fats or proteins?

 

 

Cellular Respiration: An Overview

 

4.      What occurs during the process of cellular respiration?

 

 

5.      Write the overall equation for cellular respiration using chemical formulas.

 

 

 

6.      Write the overall equation for cellular respiration using words.

 

 

 

7.      Look at Figure 9-1. Why does cellular respiration involve a series of steps rather than just one large step?

 

 

 

 

8.      What are the three main stages of cellular respiration?

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

9.      Explain the double meaning of the word “respiration”.

 

 

10.  What is meant by the term aerobic?  Anerobic?

 

Comparing Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

 

11.  If photosynthesis is the process that “deposits” energy in a “savings account,” then

what happens during cellular respiration?

 

 

12.  How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite in terms of carbon dioxide?

 

 

13.  How are photosynthesis and cellular respiration opposite in terms of oxygen?

 

 

14.  Label the diagram below:

 

 

 

Section 9–2 The Process of Cellular Respiration (pp. 254-261)

 

Glycolysis90 percent

 

15.  Glycolysis literally means ___________________________________________________

 

16.  During glycolysis, a molecule of glucose is broken down into _______________________

__________________________________________.

 

17.  If the cell uses 2 ATP molecules at the beginning of glycolysis, how does it end up

with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules?

 

 

18.  What is the function of NAD+ in glycolysis?

 

 

19.  What are the two advantages of glycolysis?

a.

 

b.

 

20.  Look at Figure 9-4. Where in the cell does glycolysis take place?

 

 

 

The Krebs Cycle

 

21.  What happens to pyruvic acid during the Krebs cycle?

 

22.  Where does the Krebs cycle take place (be specific)?

 

 

23.  Besides carbon dioxide, what else comes out of the Kreb’s cycle?

 

.

Electron Transport and ATP Synthesis

 

24.   What does the electron transport chain use the high-energy electrons from the Krebs

cycle for?

 

 

25.  What is the function of oxygen in the electron transport chain?

 

 

 

The Totals

 

26.  What is the total number of ATP molecules formed during all three steps of cellular respiration?

 

 Water and carbon dioxide stored molecules, including fats, for energy.

Section 9–3 Fermentation (pp. 262-265)

 

Fermentation

27.  What is the problem if a cell just uses glycolysis as its source of energy?

 

 

28.  What is fermentation?

 

 

29.  How does fermentation allow glycolysis to continue?

 

 

30.  Because fermentation does not require oxygen, it is said to be___________________.

 

31.  What are the two main types of fermentation?

a.

 

b.

 

32.  What organisms use alcoholic fermentation?

 

33.  What is the equation for alcoholic fermentation after glycolysis.

 

 

34.   What is the equation for lactic acid fermentation after glycolysis?

 

 

35.  During rapid exercise, how do your muscle cells produce ATP?

 

 

Energy and Exercise

 

36.  Where does the body get quick, short bursts of energy?

 

37.  Where does the body get energy for exercise that takes longer than about 90 seconds?