Name______________________________ Class __________________ Date __________
Reading Guide7 Cell

Section 71 Life Is Cellular (pages 190194)

This section explains what the cell theory is. It also describes the characteristics of two categories of cells, prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Introduction

1. What is the smallest living unit of any organism?

 

 

The Discovery of the Cell

2. What did a thin slice of cork seem like to Robert Hooke when he observed it

through a microscope?

 

 

3. What was Anton van Leeuwenhoek one of the first to see in the 1600s?

 

 

 

4. What did the German botanist Matthias Schleiden conclude?

 

 

5. What did the German biologist Theodor Schwann conclude?

 

 

 

6. How did Rudolph Virchow summarize his years of work?

 

 

7. What are the three concepts that make up the cell theory?

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

Exploring the Cell

8. How do microscopes magnify an image?

 

 

Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

9. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about prokaryotes.

a. They grow and reproduce.

b. Many are large, multicellular organisms.

c. They are more complex than cells of eukaryotes.

d. They have cell membranes and cytoplasm.

10. Name two structures that all cells have in common No,

 

11. Complete the table about the two categories of cells.

TWO CATEGORIES OF CELLS

Category

Definition

Examples

 

 

Organisms whose cells do not separate their genetic material within a nucleus

 

 

 

Organisms whose cells contain nuclei that separate the genetic material from the rest of the cell.

 

 

 

Section 72 Cell Structure (pages 196207)

 

This section describes the functions of the major cell structures.

Cell Organization

1.      What is the cytoplasm?

 

 

2.      What is an organelle? It

 

3.      Name two ways that cells are like factories.

 

a.

 

 

b.

 

 

 

4.      What is the function of the nucleus?

 

 

5.      What important molecules does the nucleus contain?

 

6.      What is the function of the nuclear pores?

 

7.       What does chromatin consist of?

 

8.      Most nuclei contain a small, dense region known as the__________________________ .

9.      What occurs in the nucleolus? This is where the assembly

 

Organelles That Store, Clean Up and Support

 

10.  What are vacuoles?

 

11.   What is the role of the central vacuole in plants?

 

 

12.   How does the contractile vacuole in a paramecium help maintain homeostasis?

 

 

13.   Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about lysosomes.

a. They contain enzymes that help synthesize lipids.

b. They break down organelles that have outlived their usefulness.

c. They produce proteins that are modified by the ER.

d. They contain enzymes that break down lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins.

 

 

14. What is the cytoskeleton?

 

 

15. Complete the table about structures that make up the cytoskeleton.

 

STRUCTURES OF THE CYTOSKELETON

Structure

Description

Functions

 

 

 

Maintain cell shape, help build cilia and flagella, form centrioles in cell division

 

 

 

Support the cell, help cells move

 

 

 

16.  What is the function of centrioles?

 

 

Organelles that Build Proteins

 

17. What are ribosomes and what is their function?

 

 

18. What is the difference between the structure of rough ER and smooth ER?

 

 

 

19. Complete the table about the two different types of ER.

 

TYPES OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM

Structure

Description

Functions

 

Smooth ER

 

 

 

Rough ER

 

 

 

 

 

20. Using the cell as a factory analogy, describe the role of the Golgi apparatus in the cell.

 

Organelles that Capture and Release Energy

21. Is the following sentence true or false? Both chloroplasts and mitochondria are

enclosed by two membranes. ___________

 

22. What is the function of chloroplasts?

 

23. What is the function of mitochondria?

 

24. Chloroplasts and mitochondria contain their own genetic information in the form of

________________________________________________.

 

Cell Boundaries

 

25. In what organisms are cell walls found? They are found in plants, algae, fungi, and many

 

26. Is the following sentence true or false? The cell wall lies inside the cell membrane. __

 

 

27. What is the main function of the cell wall? It

 

 

28. What are the functions of the cell membrane?

 

 

29. The core of nearly all cell membranes is a double-layered sheet called a(an)

____________________________________________________________.

 

30. How is the lipid bilayer formed?

Some of the proteins form channels and pumps that help move materials

 

Match the organelle with its description.

Organelle                                                                    Description

 

_____31. Ribosome                                                    a. Uses energy from sunlight to make

food which is stored with chemical energy

 

_____32. Endoplasmic reticulum                               b. Modifies, sorts and packages proteins and lipids for storage or transport out of the cell

____33. Golgi apparatus                                             c. Uses energy from food to make useable compounds

 

_____34. Lysosome                                                    d. An internal membrane system in which

components of cell membrane (lipids)and some proteins are assembled

_____35. Vacuole                                                       e. Saclike structure that stores materials

 

 

_____ 36. Chloroplast                                                 f. Small particle of RNA and protein that

synthesize proteins following instructions

from nucleus

_____37. Mitochondrion                                            g. Break down and recycle macromolecules

 

_____38.  Cell wall                                                     h. Bundles of microtubules that organize cell division

 

_____39. Cell membrane                                            i. Shapes, supports and protects the cell

 

_____40. Centrioles                                                    j. Regulates materials entering and leaving the cell