Name__________________________Class __________________ Date ______________

Chapter of Biology

Reading Guide

Section 1–1 What Is Science?

What Science Is and Is Not

1.      What is science? The goal of science is to investigate and understand nature, to

 

1.      .

2.      What are the goals of science?

 

 

 

 

Scientific Methodology: The Heart of Science

3.      Look at figure 1-3 on pages 6-8. Name the steps of the scientific methodology.

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

d.

 

e.

 

 

4.      What is observation? Give an example from figure 1-3 of an observation.

 

 

 

5.      What is an inference?

 

 

 

6.       What is a hypothesis? Give an example from figure 1-3 of a hypothesis.     

 

 

 

7.       

VARIABLES

Type of Variable

Definitions

 

Manipulated variable

 

 

 

Responding  variable

 

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          

 

8.       What is the manipulated (independent) variable from the experiment set up in figure 1-3?

 

9.      The information gathered from experimental observation is called _________________________ .

 

 

 

10.   

Type of Data

Definition

 

Quantitative

 

 

 

Qualitative

 

 

 

 

11.  Give two examples of when experiments might not be possible.

a.

 

 

 

b.

 

 

Section 1–2 Science in Context

Exploration and Discovery: Where Ideas Come From

1.  Name four ways scientists generate new ideas.

a.

 

b.

 

c.

 

d.

 

 

2.  How are science and technology related?

 

 

 

3.  It took hundreds of years of discussion and the experiments of Louis Pasteur in the nineteenth century for the larger scientific community to accept that spontaneous generation of life was not a valid scientific concept. Referring to the diagram, describe how modern methods of communication have changed the scientific process.

                                             

                                             

                                             

                                             

                                             

                                             

                                             

                                             

Communicating Results: Reviewing and Sharing Ideas

4.      Use lesson concepts to complete the diagram to show the outcome of communication among scientists.

 

 

 

 

5.      What is peer review?

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.      Of the four types of communication you added, identify the one that is critical to ensuring communication among the scientific community.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Scientific Theories

7.      What is a scientific theory?

 

 

 

 

 

8.      How does use of the word theory differ in science and in daily life?

 

 

 

For Questions 9-13, identify whether each statement is a hypothesis or a theory. For a hypothesis, write an “H” on the line. For a theory, write a “T.”

                 9.    The rate that grass grows is related to the amount of light it receives.

                 10. All life is related and descended from a common ancestor.

                 11. The universe began about 15 billion years ago.

               12.   New tennis balls bounce higher than old tennis balls.

                13.   Caffeine raises blood pressure.


 

 

 

Science and Society

14.What is bias?

 

 

15.How can bias affect the application of science in society?

 

 

 

16.Explain in your own words why science is considered a” way of knowing”?

 

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biogenesis