Photosynthesis: The energy from sunlight is used to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy carbohydrates (sugars and starches) and produce oxygen as a waste product.
Equation: 6CO2 + 6H2O à C6H12O6 + 6O2
Reactants: Carbon Dioxide, Water, and Sunlight
Products: Glucose and Oxygen
Photosynthetic Organisms = Autotrophs Plants, some protists such as algae and euglena, and some bacteria.
§ Plants gather the sun’s energy with light absorbing pigments called chlorophyll.
§ Chlorophyll absorbs red and blue light but reflects green light. This is why plants appear green.
§ Chlorophyll is located inside the chloroplast of the cell.
§ Chloroplast is an organelle only in plant cells.
There are 2 basic reactions that occur in photosynthesis:
1. The light-dependent reaction.
2. The light-independent reaction called the Calvin Cycle.
§ The chlorophyll in the chloroplast absorbs the sun’s energy and converts ADP to ATP.
• Water splits to produces oxygen gas as waste and converts NADP+ into the hydrogen carrier NADPH.
Light-independent reaction (Calvin Cycle):
§ Light is not required.
§ Uses the ATP and NADPH produced from the light-dependent reactions and carbon dioxide from the air to produce high energy sugars (glucose).
§ Plants use the sugars made during the Calvin Cycle to meet its energy needs and to build more complex macromolecules such as cellulose that it needs for growth and development.
§ When heterotrophs eat plants they can also use the energy stored in these carbohydrates.
Draw a picture: