Name: __________________________________________________________________________________ Period:_____________

 

Structure and Function of Cell Organelles

 

Organelle

Plant/Animal Cell or Both

Function

Cell (plasma) membrane

Both

Controls the movement of materials that enter and exit the cell

Nucleus

Both

Houses the DNA of the cell, controls the functions of the cell

 

Nuclear Envelope

Both

Controls the movement of materials that enter and exit the nucleus

 

Nucleolus

Both

Produces ribosomes

 

 

Chromatin

Both

Made out of DNA, stores the genetic information for the organism

 

Cytoplasm

Both

 

The site of many chemical reactions in the cell.

 

Mitochondria

Both

Breaks down food particles to release energy

 

 

Lysosomes

Both

 

Digests excess or worn out cell parts (contains digestive enzymes)

 

Ribosomes

Both

Makes proteins

 

Endoplasmic Reticulum (Smooth)

Both

Serves as the cellís transport system, site where lipids are made

Endoplasmic Reticulum (Rough)

Both

Serves as the cellís transport system, transports proteins

Golgi Apparatus

Both

Receives, packages and labels proteins and lipids for delivery to other parts of the organism

 

 

Vacuole

 

 

 

Both

Temporary storage of water, food and waste

 

 

In plants only, also used to support heavy structures such as leaves and flowers.

 

Cytoskeleton

Both

Acts as a scaffold to provide support for the organelles, Assist the movement of organelles from place to place within the cell. Made up of microtubules and microfilaments.

 

Cilia p. 501

Animal

Short, numerous, hair-like structures used in movement

 

 

Flagella p. 499

Animal

Longer whip-like structures, usually only a few, used in movement

 

 

Cell Wall

Plant

Supports and protects the plant cell

 

 

Centrioles

Animal

Used during mitosis to separate the chromosomes

 

 

 

Chloroplasts

Plant

Transform light energy in to chemical energy and store the energy in food (sugar)

 

 

Plastids

Plant

 

Storage of starches, lipids, and pigments in plants.