CHAPTER 2 NOTES

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

 

LIPIDS and NUCLEIC ACIDS

 

LIPIDS

Function: long-term energy storage, insulation, the making of cell membranes, and chemical messengers

 

Structure:

    Made out of C, H and O

    Have a large proportion of C-H bonds and very few O  

(ie) C57H110O

Lipids are insoluble in water (because they are non-polar and water is polar.)

    Common categories are fats, oils and waxes.

 

The monomers of a lipid are a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules.

 

Lipids may be made out of saturated, unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids.

 

A.       Saturated fats:  All the C-C bonds are single.  These fatty acids contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Usually solid at room temperature.

     ie) dairy, meat fat, butter

 

B.        Unsaturated fats: one or more of the C=C bonds are double or triple.  Usually liquid at room temperature.

     ie) peanut, corn, or olive oils

C.        Polyunsaturated fats: have many double or triple C=C bonds. Easy for the body to break down.

     ie) canola oil, vegetable oil

 

NUCLEIC ACIDS

 

Function: stores genetic information in cells in the form of a code.

 

Structure:

    Made up of C, H, O, N and P

    Nucleic acids are long polymers of monomers called nucleotides.

 

Nucleotides:

 

 

    

 

1. 5-C sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose)

2. nitrogen base (four different types)

3. phosphate group

 

 

 

NOTE: the two different types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA