CHAPTER 2 NOTES
LIPIDS and NUCLEIC ACIDS
Function: long-term energy storage, insulation, the making of cell membranes, and chemical messengers
· Made out of C, H and O
· Have a large proportion of C-H bonds and very few O
Lipids are insoluble in water (because they are non-polar and water is polar.)
· Common categories are fats, oils and waxes.
The monomers of a lipid are a glycerol molecule and three fatty acid molecules.
Lipids may be made out of saturated, unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids.
A. Saturated fats: All the C-C bonds are single. These fatty acids contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Usually solid at room temperature.
ie) dairy, meat fat, butter
B. Unsaturated fats: one or more of the C=C bonds are double or triple. Usually liquid at room temperature.
ie) peanut, corn, or olive oils
C. Polyunsaturated fats: have many double or triple C=C bonds. Easy for the body to break down.
ie) canola oil, vegetable oil
Function: stores genetic information in cells in the form of a code.
· Made up of C, H, O, N and P
· Nucleic acids are long polymers of monomers called nucleotides.
1. 5-C sugar (either ribose or deoxyribose)
2. nitrogen base (four different types)
3. phosphate group
NOTE: the two different types of nucleic acids are DNA and RNA