CHAPTER 1 NOTES

CHARACTERISTICS OF LIFE

 

Biology: the study of life

 

Living things:

1)                        are made up of units called cells.

2)                        reproduce.

3)                        are based on a universal genetic code.

4)                        grow and develop.

5)                        obtain and use materials and energy.

6)                        respond to their environment.

7)                        maintain a stable internal environment.

8)                        as a group, change over time.

 

1) The cell: the smallest units of an organism (a living thing). Standard B. 1.16

     Unicellular: organisms made up of only one cell

     Multicellular: organisms made up of many cells.

 

2) Reproduction: all living cells come from other living cells (biogenesis). Standard B 1.11

     Sexual reproduction: the fusing of two different sex cells (sperm and egg) to make the first cell of the new organism.

     Asexual reproduction: does not use sex cells. Usually formed when one organism divides in half to form two new organisms.

 

3) Genetic Code:

     DNA determines the inherited traits of all organisms.

 

4) Growth and Development: Standard B 1.8

     Growth: an increase in size

     Development: periods of rapid or dramatic change.

 

5) Materials and energy: Standard B 1.19

     Materials such as water, glucose, or oxygen are examples of the reactants needed for many of the chemical reactions that happen in living things.

     Energy is the product of a chemical reaction that happens in living things.

     Metabolism: the combination of chemical reactions an organism needs to carry out its life processes.

 

6) Response to the environment: Standard B. 1.18

     Organisms respond to stimuli

     Stimuli(us): a signal to which an organism responds.

 

7) Maintaining an internal balance: Standard B 1.17

     Homeostasis: the process of maintaining a stable internal environment necessary to survive.

     Usually homeostasis is maintained by an internal feedback mechanism.

 

8) Evolution:

     As a group, any kind of organism can change over time.

Survey of the Six Kingdoms of Life

Kingdom 1:  Archaebacteria

Characteristics of Archaebacteria:

Cell Type

Prokaryote

 

Cell Number

Unicellular

 

Mode of Nutrition

Autotroph or heterotroph

 

Special Characteristic

Lives without oxygen

 

Examples

Methanogens

 

 

 

Kingdom 2: Eubacteria

Characteristics of Eubacteria: 

Domain

Bacteria

Cell Type

Prokaryote

Cell Number

Unicellular

Mode of Nutrition

Autotroph or heterotroph

Examples

Streptococcus, Escherichia coli

 

E_coli_lge

 

 

Kingdom 3: Protista

Characteristics of Protists: 

 

Domain

Eukarya

Cell Type

Eukaryote

Cell Number

Unicellular; some colonial

Mode of Nutrition

Autotroph or heterotroph

Examples

Amoeba, paramecium, algae

 

Paramecium

 

Kingdom 4: Fungi

Characteristics of Fungi:

Domain

Eukarya

Cell Type

Eukaryote

Cell Number

Most multicellular; some unicellular

Mode of Nutrition

Heterotroph

Examples

Mushrooms, yeasts

 

mushrooms-topper  yeast

 

 

Kingdom 5: Plantae

Characteristics of Plants:

 

Domain

Eukarya

Cell Type

Eukaryote

Cell Number

Multicellular

Mode of Nutrition

Autotroph

Examples

Mosses, Ferns, Flowering Plants

 

Moss-Wall-04

 

 

Kingdom 6:  Animalia

Characteristics of Animals:

 

Domain

Eukarya

Cell Type

Eukaryote

Cell Number

Multicellular

Mode of Nutrition

Heterotroph

Examples

Sponges, Cnidaria, worms, insects, fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals

 

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