CHAPTER 2 NOTES

ORGANIC CHEMISTRY

 

Define organic:  any compound that contain the element carbon

 

Define inorganic:  any compound that does not contain the element carbon  (except: CO2)

 

Why is carbon so important?

    C has four bonding sites

    C can bond to any other element

    C can bond with other C to form chains

 

    C chains can be straight, branched or rings

    C can form single, double or triple bonds with itself.

single: C-C   double: C=C    triple: C=C

 

NOTE: No other element comes close to carbonís versatility.

 

 

Many of the molecules that make up living this are called macromolecules because they are so large.

 

Macromolecules are made by a process called polymerization. This is when small molecules called monomers join together in a long chain to make large molecules called polymers or macromolecules.

 

CARBOHYDRATES

 

Function: to store and release energy and form structural materials in plants.

 

Structure:

    Made out of C, H, and O

    Usually have a ratio of 1C: 2H: 1O

 

 

Carbohydrates can be isomers (have the same chemical formula but a different 3-D shape) of each other.

 

Carbohydrates can be simple sugars or more complex carbohydrates.

 

Single or simple sugars are called monosaccharides.

ie)

1.                       glucose (the sugar plants make)

2.                       fructose (fruit sugar)

3.                       galactose (a monomer of milk sugar)

 

When two monosaccharides are put together it makes a disaccharide.

ie)

1.                       sucrose (table sugar)

2.                        maltose (malt sugar)

3.                        lactose (milk sugar)

    

When many, many monosaccharides are put together in a long chain, it makes a complex carbohydrate or polysaccharide.

ie)

1.                       starch (stored excess sugar in plants)

2.                       glycogen (stored excess sugar in animals)  

3.                       cellulose (builds cell walls in plants)

 

GLUCOSE is the most important monosaccharide!!

 

Making of carbohydrates:

 

Carbohydrates are made by a process called dehydration synthesis: the making of a large molecule from several smaller molecules with the removal of water.

 

Carbohydrates are broken down by a process called hydrolysis: the breaking down of a large molecule into several smaller molecules with the addition of water.