Chapter 7 Plasma Membrane Review

1.      What are the four major components of the plasma membrane?


2.      What is the function of the cholesterol?  The carbohydrates?


3.      Why is the plasma membrane described as “fluid mosaic”?  What holds the membrane together?


4.      Which part of the phospholipid is polar?  Nonpolar?


5.      Define diffusion.


6.      What is a concentration gradient?


7.      What direction does diffusion always move?


8.      When does diffusion stop?


9.      Describe what is happening at (dynamic) equilibrium?


10.  What is osmosis?


11.  What is meant by a selectively permeable membrane?


12.  What is an isotonic solution? What happens to a cell in an isotonic solution?


13.  What is a hypotonic solution? What direction does the water move?  What happens to a cell in a hypotonic solution?


14.  What is this process called?


15.  What is turgor pressure?  What is the purpose of turgor pressure?


16.  What is osmotic pressure?


17.  What is a hypertonic solution? What direction does the water move?  What happens to a cell in a hypertonic solution?


18.  What is this process called?


19.  What is passive transport? 


20.  Name the three types of passive transport?


21.  What direction do the molecules move in passive transport?


22.  What is facilitated diffusion?


23.  What is active transport? 


24.  Name the three types of active transport?


25.  What direction do the molecules move in active transport?


26.  Compare and contrast between channel proteins and carrier proteins?


27.  What is endocytosis?  What is exocytosis?


28.  Why is cell communication important?


29.  What is cell differentiation? What is cell specialization?


30.  What are the chemical messengers for the endocrine system?  For the nervous system?


31.  How do chemical messengers “know” what cells are their target cells?


32.  Define a hormone.


33.  Describe the relationship between hormones and their receptor proteins.


34.  What is the name of the hormone in plants that affects the growth of the tip of the roots and stems by causing the cells to elongate and divide?


35.  Name two environmental stimuli that the plant hormone in the question above responds to.


36.  List the levels of organization found in a multi-cellular organism from simplest to most complex.


37.   What is a tissue?  An organ? An organ system?


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