Chapter 19 Review




1. How have scientists learned about past life forms?



2. Define the term fossil.  Give examples of fossils.



3. What type of rock do fossils form in? What is this type of rock made out of?



4. Describe how fossils form.



5. Name and describe the two techniques for dating fossils. Which is more accurate and why?



6. Where are the oldest rocks found? Where are the youngest rocks found?



7. What is an index fossil? What three characteristics make a fossil an index fossil?



8. What is a radioactive half-life? Be able to determine a half-life from a graph.



9. Name three types of information that scientists can get from studying fossils.



10. How old is the earth estimated to be?



11. How did the Earth first form? (include when the Earth first started to cool to form oceans)



12. What was missing form the Earth's early atmosphere?



13. Describe Stanley Miller and Harold Urey's experiment. What did it show?




14. What are proteinoid microspheres and why might they be important?



15. Why is RNA such an unusual molecule?



16. What type of living organism came first? Which type of living organism came second?  Third?



17. When did the earliest life forms appear in the fossil record?



18. After photosynthetic bacteria developed, what very important element did they release into the atmosphere?



19. What is the endosymbiotic theory?  What three pieces of evidence support this theory?



20. What is so important about sexual reproduction? What is the genetic diversity in prokaryotes limited to?



21. Name the four Eras in order of oldest to youngest.



22. What sort of organisms developed during the Precambrian era?



23. What major event marks the end of each era?  Why are these events important to evolution?



24. What are the six periods found in the Paleozoic Era?



25. What sort of organisms developed during the Paleozoic Era?



26. What are the three periods of the Mesozoic Era?



27. What sort of organisms developed during the Mesozoic Era?



28. What are the two period of the Cenozoic Era?



29. What sort of organisms developed during the Cenozoic Era?



30. What is a macorevolution?



31. What is mass extinction? The fossil record tells us what percentage of all species are now extinct?



32. What is adaptive radiation? Give several examples.



33. What is convergent evolution? What evidence do we have that supports convergent evolution?  Give several examples of convergent evolution.



34. What is divergent evolution? What evidence do we have that supports divergent evolution?



35. What is coevolution? Give several examples of coevolution.



36. Compare and contrast punctuated equilibrium and gradualism.  Be able to draw a graph of both punctuated equilibrium and gradualism.



37. What do HOX genes control? Explain why the HOX genes are important to understanding evolution.


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