Chapter 14 Review

 

1. What is incomplete dominance?

 

2. What does the heterozygous individual look like for incomplete dominance?

 

3. How do we represent incomplete dominance in a Punnett square (how do we illustrate the two different alleles)?

 

4. What is codominance?

 

5. What does the heterozygous individual look like for codominance?

 

6. How do we represent codominance in a Punnett square (how do we illustrate the two different alleles)?

 

7. What are multiple alleles?

  

8. What human trait is controlled by multiple alleles?

 

9. What are the possible genotypes of a person with type A blood?  Type B?  Type AB? Type O?

 

10. What is polygenic inheritance?

 

11. How can you recognize a trait controlled by polygenic inheritance?  Give some examples of polygenic traits in humans.

 

12. If you graphed a polygenic trait, what would the graph look like?

 

13. What is an autosome?  How many do we have? Are autosomes homologous?

 

14. What is a sex chromosome?  How many do we have? Are sex chromosomes homologous?

 

15. What is a karyotype?

 

16. What is the genotype for a female?  Female eggs have which type of sex chromosome(s)?

 

17. What is the genotype for a male? Male sperm have which type of sex chromosome(s)?

 

18. Who determines the sex of a child?  Why?

 

19. What percentage of the male's sperm has the X chromosome? What percentage of the male's sperm has the Y chromosome?

 

20. What is a sex-linked trait?

 

21. Name three disorders we have studied that are sex-linked:

       

22. What is the genotype of a homozygous normal female? Carrier female? Female with hemophilia?

 

23. What is a carrier?

 

24. What is the genotype of a normal male?  A male with hemophilia?

 

25. Which sex is more likely to get a sex-linked trait?  Why?

 

26. Why can't a father pass a sex-linked trait on to his son?

 

27. What is a test cross? 

 

28. What do you cross the individual of unknown genotype with in order to determine the correct genotype?

 

29.  What is a pedigree?

 

30. What do the square represent?  The circles represent?

 

31. What does a shaded circle or square represent?

 

32. What does a half shaded circle represent?

 

33. What does a horizontal line connecting a circle to a square represent?

 

34. What does a vertical line connecting a marriage line to circles and squares represent?

 

35. How do you determine how many generations are in a pedigree?

 

36. What does homozygous mean? Heterozygous?

 

37.  In humans, red-green color-blindness is a sex-linked trait located on the X chromosomes.  Normal vision (XN) is dominant to color-blindness (Xn). Using a Punnett square, cross a heterozygous female with a male that has normal vision.

 

                                                       __________ X __________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Genotypic ratio: 

 

Phenotypic ratio:

 

38.In guinea pigs, white fur color (W) is incompletely dominant to yellow fur color (W). When crossed they produce heterozygous offspring with cream-colored fur. (WW). Using a Punnett square, cross two guinea pigs with cream-colored fur.

 

                                                     ___________ X ___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Genotypic ratio: 

 

Phenotypic ratio:

 

39.In chickens, black feather color (B) is codominant to white feather color (W).  The heterozygous individual is a combination of black and white feathers that results in a checkered pattern (BW).  Using a Punnett square, cross a checkered chicken with a black chicken.

 

                                                     ___________ X ___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Genotypic ratio: 

 

Phenotypic ratio:

 

40.Using a Punnett square, cross a person that is heterozygous for type A blood with a person that is heterozygous for type B blood.

 

                                                     ___________ X ___________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 Genotypic ratio: 

 

Phenotypic ratio:

 

41. Study the pedigree for hemophilia shown in Figure 1 below.  Hemophilia is a sex-linked recessive trait located on the X chromosome (Xh).  Normal blood clotting is controlled by the dominant allele (XH)If a person has hemophilia then their blood fails to clot properly.   FILL OUT THE PEDIGREE BELOW WITH THE CORRECT GENOTYPES!!!!!

 

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