Chapter 12-13 Review


1. What are the three parts that make up a nucleotide?


2. What is the sugar found in DNA?


3. What are the four different bases found in DNA nucleotides? Which are purines (long bases)? Which are pyrimadines (short bases)?


4. What two parts make up the sides of the DNA “ladder”?


5. What type of bond holds the sugars and the phosphates together?


6. What makes up the rungs of the DNA “ladder”?


7. To which part of the nucleotide are the rungs attached?


8. What is the “base-pairing” (Chargaff's) rule?  Which nucleotides pair together?  Why?


9. What holds the nitrogen bases together? How many between A and T? How many between C and G?


10. What best describes the shape of a DNA molecule? Which two scientists were given the Nobel Prize for discovering the shape of DNA?


11. Name four ways the RNA is different from DNA.


12. What is replication?


13. What are the three steps involved in DNA replication. 


14. How many strands of DNA act as a template during replication?


15. What enzyme is used in replication?


16. Where does replication occur?


17. What is true about the two new strands of DNA at the end of replication (how do they compare)?


18. Why and when does DNA replication occur?


19. What is transcription?


20. What are the steps involved in RNA transcription?


21. How many strands of DNA act as a template during transcription?


22. What are the three different types of RNA?


23. What is the function of mRNA?


24. Why is mRNA necessary?


25. What is translation?


26. What are the three steps involved in translation?


27. What is made during translation?


28. What is the function of rRNA?


29. What is a codon?


30. What is the function of tRNA?


31. What is an anticodon?


32. What type of bond forms between amino acids?


33. What codon starts the process of translation?  What  three codons stops translation?


34. What is a mutation?


35. Name three mutagens that cause mutations.


36. What is the difference between a point and a frameshift mutation?


37. Which is worse, point or frameshift?  Explain why.


38. What is an operon?


39. Explain how the lac operon turns off.


40. Explain how the lac operon turn on.


41. What is a repressor protein do?


42. What is the function of the TATA box?


43. Why is gene regulation important?


44. What do homeotic genes and homeobox genes (HOX genes) control?




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