GENERAL BIOLOGY                                Name:

Second Semester Exam Study Guide

Units: Genetics, Ecology, Evolution

Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6, 11, 14, 16, 17, 18 and 19.



1.      Define and give examples of Mendel’s 3 Principles (Laws) of Inheritance

                a.   Principle of Dominance:




b.        Principle of Segregation:




c.         Principle of Independent Assortment:




2.      How many alleles does an individual carry for each trait?



3.      What is the relationship between the following terms: gene, trait, DNA?




4.      In humans, free earlobes (F) are dominant to attached earlobes (f).  Write the genotype of:


a.       A person who is homozygous for free earlobes:


b.       A person who is heterozygous for free earlobes:


c.        A person who is homozygous for attached earlobes:



5.      In flowers, red petals (R) is the dominant version and white petals (r) is recessive.  Cross a heterozygous red rose with a white rose.  Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic probabilities as ratios or percentages.






                                        Genotypic probability:




                                       Phenotypic probability:











6.      Define and give examples of following patterns of inheritance:


a.       Incomplete dominance (describe the heterozygote):




b.       Codominance (describe the heterozygote):




c.        Polygenic inheritance (what it is and how you can tell by looking at a population graph. Draw an example of a polygenic population graph. Don’t forget to label your axes!)











7.      In flowers, red petals (R) is incompletely dominant to white (R’ or W depending on how your teacher taught you).  The heterozygote flower is pink (written RR’ or RW).  Cross two pink flowers.  Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic probabilities as ratios or percentages.







Genotypic probability:




                              Phenotypic probability:




8.      In chickens, the allele for black feathers (B) is codominant with the allele for white feathers (W).  The heterozygote is a checkered pattern.  Cross a black hen with a checkered rooster.  Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic probabilities as ratios or percentages.








Genotypic probability:




                  Phenotypic probability:



9.      Hemophilia (H) is a recessive X-linked trait.  Cross a female who is a carrier for hemophilia with a male that has hemophilia.  Show your work in a Punnett square and record the genotypic and phenotypic probabilities as ratios or percentages.

Genotypic probability:








                       Phenotypic probability:


10.  Cross a parent who is heterozygous type A blood with a heterozygous type B parent.  Show your work in a Punnett square and give the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of the offspring. Blood type is an example of what type of inheritance pattern?






Genotypic probability:




                  Phenotypic probability:





11.  What are the possible gametes that can be produced by a person who has BbTt genotype?



12.  Which parent determines the sex of the child? Why?




13.  Free earlobes is an autosomal dominant trait and attached earlobes are recessive. What is the genotype of a carrier?



14.  Why are females less likely than males to inherit a recessive sex-linked trait?



15.  Distinguish between autosomes and sex-chromosomes.





16.  What is the sex chromosome combination of a normal male?  A normal female?  Describe how the sex chromosomes are inherited.  (Which comes from each parent?)





17.  What is a pedigree? Be sure you can analyze pedigrees.








18.  What types of cells are produced during the process of meiosis?



19.  What are the differences between haploid gamete cells and regular diploid cells?








20.  Compare the purposes of meiosis and mitosis, and how many cells result from each process.






21.  How many rounds of DNA replication and cell division occur during meiosis?





22.  What is produced at the end of meiosis?  (Include how many cells and whether they are diploid or haploid.)




23.  Are the daughter cells genetically different or genetically identical to the original parent cell?





24.  How many alleles do gametes have for each trait after meiosis?  Why?




25.  What is crossing over and in what type of cell division does it occur?







26.  Name three ways that meiosis and/or sexual reproduction result in offspring that are genetically different from the parents (i.e. variation is added in).





27.  How does non-disjunction cause chromosome number disorders? Define monosomy and trisomy and give an example of each.








28.  Describe the following chromosome mutations:

a.       Deletion:



b.       Duplication:



c.        Inversion:



d.       Translocation:




29.  What is the genetic definition of evolution?






30.  According to scientists, approximately how old is the Earth?




31.  According to scientists, approximately when did life first appear on Earth? 




32.  What were the first life forms? (unicellular or multicellular, prokaryotic or eukaryotic?)




33.  List the following in the order in which they appeared over Earth’s history: eukaryotes, prokaryotes, multicellular organisms.




34.  What evolutionary event does the endosymbiotic theory explain?




35.  List the evidence for the endosymbiotic theory.







36.  What is the goal of systematics or classification?




37.  Name the eight hierarchical taxa (first introduced by Carl Linnaeus) in order from LEAST SPECIFIC to most specific.




38.  What is the correct way to write the Latin name for the human species, according to the rules of binomial nomenclature?




39.  What is a cladogram and how can it be used to determine similarities in DNA sequences and recent common ancestry?




40.  What is a derived character?





41.  What does a node (point where two lines come together) on a cladogram represent?

42.  Based on the cladogram to the right, what characteristics or derived characters do the lizard and the hamster share?








43.  Based on the cladogram, which organisms share the most recent common ancestor?




44.  On the cladogram, indicate which node represents the most recent common ancestor shared by lizards and hamsters.



45.  Complete the chart below:


Prokaryotes or Eukaryotes?

Unicellular, Multicellular or both?

Heterotrophic, Autotrophic or both?
































46.  What scientist incorrectly thought that evolution could be explained by the inheritance of acquired traits?  What does the inheritance of acquired traits mean?







47.  Who developed the theory that evolution occurs by the process of natural selection?




48.  Briefly describe common beliefs in society at the time of Charles Darwin.









49.  What is natural selection?




50.  List the four principles of natural selection.










51.  How do adaptations such as camouflage or mimicry develop through natural selection?






52.  How does the variation needed for natural selection arise? (What is the source of variation in traits?)




53.  What is a gene pool?




54.  Compare the allele frequencies of a population that is evolving with a population that is in genetic equilibrium.




55.  List five factors that could cause allelic frequencies to change in a population (5 mechanisms of evolution).














56.  What part of Darwin’s natural selection theory couldn’t he explain?  Whose work was discovered after Darwin’s death to fill the gaps in his theory?






57.  List the five major classes of evidence for evolution.












58.  Compare analogous structures, homologous structures, and vestigial structures.  Give examples of each and whether or not they indicate common ancestry.




(same or different?)


(same or different?)


 Share recent common ancestor?

















59.  Describe how DNA sequences allow scientists to determine the amount of time that has passed since two species diverged from a common ancestor. Include molecular clock in your answer.







60.  Describe (very briefly) different types of reproductive isolation that could cause speciation.









61.  Compare directional selection, disruptive selection, and stabilizing selection. Be able to recognize examples and graphs of each.





















62. Explain the difference between convergent evolution, divergent evolution (adaptive radiation), and coevolution. Provide an example of each.
































63.There have been five mass extinctions during the Earth’s history, and we are in the midst of the sixth. What are general characteristics of mass extinctions?





64. REMEMBER!!! ____________________________ evolve, ______________________________ do NOT!





65.  Distinguish between biotic and abiotic factors and give an example of each.







66.  Describe the movement of matter and energy through an ecosystem (remember, they move differently).






67.  What are the three ways that nitrogen gas can be “fixed” into a usable form?




68.  What is the main source of energy for most life forms? What type of energy is used by some bacteria that live deep in hidden spaces?





69.  What is the role of producers in an ecosystem? What chemical reaction is associated with this role?





70.  What is the difference between a food chain and a food web?





71.  Construct a straight line food chain for the following organisms: insect, tree, hawk, sparrow. 







72.  Label each trophic level in your food chain above.



73.  About how much energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next trophic level?


74.  The energy released (not transferred) at each trophic level is usually released as which form?



75. How are fossil fuels formed?    

76. How is the carbon in fossil fuels eventually returned to the atmosphere?

77. List three factors that affect population growth.


78.  Compare exponential and logistic growth. Draw a graph of each and label the conditions that the type of growth represents.




79.  Define carrying capacity.


80.  Differentiate between density-independent and density-dependent limiting factors. Give examples of each.


81.  Why are predator/prey interactions important in an ecosystem?


82.  What are the 5 types of community interactions, and an example of each type?







83.  What is biodiversity?

84.  Why is biodiversity important?

85.  What is an invasive species?  Give examples of invasive species.


86.  What impact do invasive species have on the ecosystems they invade?


87.  Global warming is caused by a variety of atmospheric gases that are enhancing the natural greenhouse effect. Which compound is released by the burning of fossil fuels and scientists explain is the leading causes of climate change today?


88.  Give at least three examples of human activities that upset the balance of a stable ecosystem.


89.  What are some factors that contribute to species extinction? (You should list at least 4 or more)


90.  Explain the difference between ecology and evolution.